What is a molotov cocktail?
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The legendary Molotov cocktail is not really a cocktail at all. Perhaps this is one of the most formidable weapons of the first years of World War II, designed to undermine the German tanks. The Molotov Cocktail was made using napalm technology - it had a kerosene base with various fillers. According to tradition, it was poured into glass bottles, filled them with an incendiary family by about two thirds, and a cork with a wick was fastened on top. Then the soldiers, hiding in a disguised trench across the tank, set fire to the fuse and threw the bottle into the motor grille. And the gasoline on which the enemy tanks, which had not yet switched to diesel, were working, burned magnificently.
History of creation
The official version of the creation of an incendiary projectile, which was in service in the Soviet army, was disputed by many. So, the Finns claimed that they used similar “cocktails” against Russian soldiers back in 1940 during the Soviet-Finnish war.True, they called them a little differently - "cocktails for Molotov."
In fact, what “Molotov cocktails” are, was known in Cuba in the 19th century. The local rebels used them in the struggle for independence - they invented to mix two thirds of kerosene and one third of the Roma to set fire to the Spanish barracks. Later, during the Spanish civil war, the same Cuban revolutionaries used incendiary mixtures, but against the technology of General Franco. And after the war, the secret of the fiery “drink” spread throughout the world.
In the USSR, thanks to the efforts of the NKVD, the Molotov cocktail was improved, and its production was put on stream. One of the most important components was white phosphorus - a substance capable of burning through armor and igniting simply from contact with air. At the same time it is almost impossible to put out. Thanks to the rapid flammability of the improved fluid, the soldiers no longer needed to ignite the fuse.
The Molotov cocktails inflicted the greatest damage on the German army in the battle of Moscow: at that time the Soviet army still used cavalry and, attacking the enemy’s ranks, threw the enemy's technique with burning “gifts”.Bottles for "cocktails" were made at the distillery in Lefortovo, and the mixture itself was brought in special trucks, they were bottled by women outside the walls of the factory workshops.
So, probably, the combat experience of the fiery “cocktail” would have been accumulated if in 1942 most of the German tanks had not switched to diesel fuel. A diesel ignites much more difficult. But at that time, the soldiers in their arms were already more modern weapons, so the need for some primitive incendiary mixtures disappeared.
According to statistics, a total of seven thousand "cocktails" were produced during the Great Patriotic War. After 1945, Molotov cocktails were adopted in many countries. Che Guevara, leader of the 1959 Cuban Revolution, unveiled his own “cocktail” recipe — three quarters of gasoline for one quarter of motor oil. Since then, anarchists and rebels of all stripes are loyal fans of this incendiary "drink."
Today, the technology of preparing "cocktails" has not changed fundamentally - they are made from gasoline, kerosene, turpentine or acetone with the addition of various thickeners.Modern tanks "cocktail" does not set fire, but will damage its external devices - for example, the optical system or antenna. When street collisions "cocktails" are usually thrown into the glass of a car, into the ventilation grilles, under the bottom or into the wheels of buses.
Date: 10.10.2018, 13:10 / Views: 63263
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