What are the mountains?
It would seem that such a mountain? The elevated part of the territory, however, if you ask yourself what mountains are, you will have to classify them according to the following criteria:
- What is the geographical location and age of the mountain, morphology is taken into account.
- What are the structural features of the mountain, given the geological structure.
Classification of mountains according to the first criterion
Mountains are divided into Cordillera, ridges, chains and single mountains, mountain systems, groups.
- Cordillera are ridges, as well as groups of mountains and mountain systems of different ages. In the west of North America, the Cordillera region consists of the Coast Ranges, the Cascade Mountains, the Sierra Nevada, the Rocky Mountains and many small ridges that lie between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, in the region of the states of the South and Nevada. In Central Asia, the Cordillera include the Himalayas and the Tien Shan. Mountain systems are a group of ridges and groups of mountains that are similar in age and origin.
- The ridges are a group of mountains stretched for many kilometers in a narrow strip. We can give an example of a typical ridge - these are the mountains of Sangre de Cristo,which extend in the states of Colorado and New Mexico more than 240 km, their width is not more than 24 km, there are many peaks, some of which reach 4000 - 4300 m in height.
- A group of mountains is called genetically closely related mountains, but this cluster does not have a clearly defined linear structure, which is characteristic of the ridge. An example is the mountains of Henry in Utah and Beer-Po, which are located in Montana.
- Solitary mountains, usually of volcanic origin, are found all over the planet (Hood Mountains in Oregon, Mount Rainier in Washington).
What are the mountains on the structure
When classifying mountains according to the second criterion, endogenous processes of relief formation are taken into account. Mountains are divided into:
- Volcanic mountains are mountains that are formed due to the accumulation of magmatic masses during volcanic eruptions. Similarly, such mountains may arise as a result of unevenly occurring erosion-denudation processes over a wide area that is subject to tectonic uplift, as well as folded mountains are formed due to the tectonic movements themselves.
- Folded mountains - have a very complex structure, as they consist of zones of initial folding, which are limited by huge deflections (geosynclinal belts) in which sediments accumulated.An example of the folded mountains is the North America Appalachian Mountains.
- Blocky mountains are large mountain ranges that were formed as a result of tectonic uplifts along the faults of the earth's crust. As an example - the California mountains of Sierra Nevada, a length of 640 km and a width of 80 - 120 km.
- Steady mountains are land areas that once experienced a tectonic uplift as a result of the erosion process and acquired a mountainous appearance. An example is the Black Hills Mountains, which are located in South Dakota.
- Ostanov plateaus - mountain landscapes on the site of elevated territory, which were formed as a result of erosion-denudation processes. An example is the destruction of the high plateau of Colorado (southwest USA) and, as a consequence, the formation of a strongly dissected mountainous relief. Which mountains in height depends on the degree of destruction of the plateau.
- Volcanic mountains are spread almost across the globe and come in various types. Formed as a result of accumulations of volcanic masses. A picturesque example of a volcanic cone is Mount Fuji in Japan, Mayon in the Philippines, Shasta in California, Misty in Peru, etc.
Classification of mountains by origin
- Dislocation and tectonic mountains.
- Bulk, Accumulation and bulk formations - rarely reach a significant value.
- Erosive - created by erosion and rarely create a real mountain landscape.
Date: 08.10.2018, 16:36 / Views: 83231
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