Technology and types of laser metal cutting

Metal cutting with a laser is one of the most economical and efficient ways of metalworking. In addition, laser cutting provides high speed and accuracy of cutting metal sheet. The technology is used in industrial enterprises specializing in metalworking.

How laser cutting of metal is performed

Laser cutting is based on the reflection and absorption of a high-impulse beam. Under the influence of high-intensity radiation, a solid material rapidly accumulates its own melting and evaporation temperature.

The process details as follows:

  1. The laser beam acts on the metal preform, forming a small diameter point on its surface.
  2. At the site of laser exposure, the material is rapidly heated and melted.
  3. A depression appears at the point of impact.
  4. Under the influence of the powerful energy of the beam, the metal begins to evaporate, providing a cut of the preform.

It should be borne in mind that metal boiling occurs only when cutting thin sheets. The cutting of a plate is carried out with the use of gas, which blows the molten particles from the cutting site. Oxygen, nitrogen, inert gas and air mixture are widely used.

Types of laser metalworking

The machine for cutting metal with a laser includes the main nodes:

  • A source of laser energy, called a pumping system.
  • The working body, radiating under the influence of energy.
  • Optical resonator, which is a system of mirrors.

The types of cutting are classified according to the type of laser used for the work, as well as its power. They are divided into the following groups:

  • Solid state lasers. Their power can not exceed 6 kW.
  • Gas lasers, whose power reaches 20 kW
  • Gas-dynamic lasers with power up to 100 kW and more.

The production traditionally used solid-state lasers. The laser beam is fed by them continuously or in the form of pulses. The working body is made of ruby, neodymium glass or calcium fluorite (CaF2).The main advantage of this type of device is the possibility of issuing a high power pulse within fractions of seconds.

Gas-type laser systems are used for technical and scientific metalworking. The working fluid is a gas mixture using nitrogen, carbon dioxide and helium. Under the influence of the electric discharge, the atoms of the gases are excited and form a directed monochromatic beam.

Gas-dynamic types of lasers are among the most powerful. The working body in them is carbon dioxide heated to the maximum temperature. Then the heated gas passes through a narrow channel, in which its expansion and rapid cooling are carried out. At the same time, a large amount of energy is released, which is then sent to conduct laser cutting.

Due to the principle of operation and power, gas-dynamic lasers can be used for metalworking products of any type. The low power consumption of the beam makes it possible to cut the metal at a distance from the laser head without reducing efficiency.

Where laser cutting is used

Productivity, maximum accuracy and extreme metalworking efficiency with the use of a laser ensured a wide spread of technology in all spheres.It is used to produce products of the following type:

  1. Parts for machines and mechanisms.
  2. Commercial and consumer equipment and structures.
  3. Elements of heating and water supply systems.
  4. Elements of fences and gates.
  5. The release of metal products of the original form.
  6. Production of precision parts.

Date: 08.10.2018, 11:09 / Views: 91555

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