Immunodiagnosis of tumors
Immunodiagnosis of tumors
Tumor-associated antigens (TAA) can help in the diagnosis of various tumors and sometimes determine the response to therapy or disease return. The ideal tumor marker would be a marker isolated only from tumor tissue, specific for this type of tumor, determined with a small number of tumor cells, directly related to the mass of tumor cells and presenting in all patients with this tumor. However, although most tumors release antigenic macromolecules into the circulation, none of the tumor markers have all the necessary characteristics that provide sufficient specificity or sensitivity for use in early diagnostics or in cancer screening programs.
Cancer embryonic antigen (CEA)is a protein-polysaccharide complex detected in colon cancer and in the normal fetal intestine, pancreas, and liver. The level of this antigen in the blood is elevated in colon cancer patients,but its specificity is relative, since positive results are found in many people who smoke, in patients with cirrhosis, with ulcerative colitis and other oncological diseases (for example, breast, pancreas, bladder, ovaries, and cervix cancer). Monitoring the level of CEA may be useful to determine the return of the disease after surgical removal of the tumor in patients who had initially elevated levels of CEA.
a-fetoproteinis a normal product of fetal liver cells, also detected in the serum of patients with primary hepatoma, yolk sac neoplasms and often fetal ovarian and testicular cancer.
-The subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (-HCG) is determined by immunological methods of research and is the main clinical marker in women with trophoblastic tumors (TO) - a group of diseases including cystic drift, non-metastatic MOT and metasti-CI and2/ males with testicular embryonic cancer or choriocarcinoma. The definition of an α-subunit is important because it is a specific indicator for GTH.
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)- glycoprotein, localized in the epithelial cells of the ducts of the prostate gland, can be determined in low concentrations in healthy men. In studies using monoclonal antibodies in approximately 90% of patients with advanced prostate cancer, PSA levels are increased, even in the absence of data on tumor metastasis. The test is more sensitive than the definition of prostatic acid phosphatase. But since the PSA level is elevated in case of benign prostatic hypertrophy, the specificity of this study is small. The definition of PSA can be used to monitor the recurrence of the disease after treatment of prostate cancer.
CA 5It is used in the diagnosis and monitoring of ovarian cancer therapy, although any peritoneal inflammatory process can increase its level.
2-Microglobulinoften elevated in multiple myeloma and some lymphomas. Used to predict the disease.
CA 19-9originally used to detect colorectal cancer, but then it was shown that it has greater sensitivity for pancreatic cancer.Primarily used to assess the response to treatment in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. The level of CA 19-9 can also be increased in other types of oncological diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, especially bile duct cancer.
CA 15-3elevated in 54–80% of patients with metastatic breast cancer. In addition, its level can be increased in various benign (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, SLE) and malignant (lung cancer, ovarian cancer, endometrium, gastrointestinal tract, bladder) diseases. This marker is primarily used to monitor the response to therapy.
Chromogranin AIt is used as a marker of carcinoid and other neuroendocrine tumors. Anomalous level is found in1/ patients with localized forms of the disease and2/3metastatic cancer. The level can be increased in other malignant diseases, such as lung and prostate cancer.
TiroglobulinIt is produced by the thyroid gland and can be increased with various thyroid diseases. It is primarily used in thyroid cancer after complete thyroidectomy to determine the recurrence of the disease and to monitor the response to treatment for metastatic cancer.
TA-90is a highly immunogenic subunit of the urinary tumor-associated antigen, which is present in 70% of patients with melanoma, mild crooked sarcomas and breast, colon and lung cancer. Some studies have shown that the TA-90 level can be used for a sufficiently accurate prognosis of survival and the presence of subclinical disease after surgical removal of melanoma. We will touch on the topic of immunodiagnosis of tumors in the following articles.
Date: 08.10.2018, 09:35 / Views: 31363
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