Dog sleep as a variant of behavior
Dog sleep is the vital condition of the body for rest and rest, characterized by a lack of purposeful activity and disconnection from the sensory influences of the external world.
In dogs, a change of sleep and wakefulness occurs several times a day (6-8 times). This is a polyphasic sleep, in contrast to monophasic and seasonal sleep. Monophasic sleep is confined to a daily change of day and night, seasonal sleep (hibernation) is confined to an unfavorable period for the organism (cold, drought, and lack of food).
The total duration of sleep for an adult dog is 5-6 hours per day. Dog sleep easily come in the absence of stimuli. The dog sleeps only lying.
Many functions of the body during sleep periodically change their intensity. So, for example, at the beginning of sleep, the frequency of respiratory movements decreases, the pulse rate becomes less frequent, the level of blood pressure in peripheral vessels decreases, the intensity of metabolism decreases, the excitability of the nervous system and brain temperature, peripheral vessels dilate.Almost all the muscles are relaxed during sleep, but some of them may be in a state of increased tonus, for example, if a dog is sleeping with its head on its front paws. In the future, these processes are periodically enhanced or subjected to sharp fluctuations. During sleep (especially deep), the approximate reaction to external irritation is weakened and the conditioned reflex activity is underestimated. Separate reactions are somewhat enhanced, for example, during sleep, changes occur in the biocurrents of cortical and subcortical structures. During sleep with the eyes closed, the pupils constrict, while in the awake state they react to darkness with expansion, the eyeballs deviate in different directions, their usual consistency with each other is lost, but they can also make quick movements. By the external manifestation of many functions, it seems that sleep is a hindered state of the nervous system. This is supported by both the results of experiments of classical physiology and clinical observations. However, modern neurophysiology and clinical physiology also presented new results from sleep studies.
It is well known what exceptional importance in the life of a dog is sleep. The French explorer P. Pieron discovered that dogs deprived of sleep for 10 to 19 days perish. The need for sleep is associated with the age characteristics of the dog's body (with age, the duration of sleep decreases). So, newborn puppies sleep up to 20-23 hours a day. During sleep, rest, restoring the performance of "tired" cells. Empirical observations of the “refreshing” results of sleep have long led to the conclusion that during sleep, the energy expended during wakefulness is restored. Based on the concept of the protective role of inhibition, it is assumed that sleep is inhibition, which is the result of exhaustion. However, sleep is not a passive state of the brain, but an active one, eliminating the effects of exhaustion.
The idea of the protective role of sleep is confirmed by A. Shepoval-nikova in his neurophysiological studies of the reorganization of the mode of operation of neuronal activity. J. Moruzzi believes that sleep does not restore all functions, but only those that require a long time.According to their views, during sleep, the energy spent by the dog on perception and training is restored. As for, for example, synoptic processes occurring within milliseconds, the mechanism for their recovery is different.
By the method of conditioned reflexes on experiments, it was proved that the transitional states from sleep to wakefulness and from wakefulness to sleep consist of several phases, each of which is characterized by a peculiar ratio of the strength of stimulation and the magnitude of the conditioned reflex. They resemble the phase phenomena of the period observed by N. Vvedensky, therefore some of them were given the same names.
The following phases have been recorded, called hypnotic, and manifesting one after another in a more or less distinct form of behavior:
a) equalizing phase - in contrast to the waking state, when the magnitude of the reflex is determined by the strength of the stimulus and is characterized by equal effects from both strong and weak stimuli;
b) the paradoxical phase is distinguished by perverse power relations: the strong cause reduced effects, and the weak - increased compared to the reflexes while the animal is awake;
c) the ultraparadoxical phase - characterized by opposing responses: a positive stimulus inhibits, and the negative one on the contrary, causes a conditioned reflex;
d) narcotic phase - a general decrease in conditioned reflex activity;
e) inhibitory phase - complete inhibition of conditioned reflexes.
In dogs, sleep is slow and consists of three stages: 1) drowsy; 2) superficial; 3) deep.
Date: 29.10.2018, 19:10 / Views: 94465
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