5-year-old child - psychology and physical development

A child spent 5 years in the process of rapid development of his mental and physical abilities. He actively learns about the world around him, learns to communicate productively with his peers and adults ...

However, he still has a lot to learn, and to help the kid in his constant progress, you need to have an idea about the basic knowledge and skills of his children age group.

 

Child5yearsold-psychologyandphysicaldevelopment

PhiThefive-year-oldbaby’smentaldevelopmentisinnowayinferiortothepronouncedprogressofhismentalqualities.

Significantchangesoccurinthechild’sappearance:hepullsout,losestheinherentplumpnessofyoungerchildren,losesweight.Thisphenomenoncanbeconsideredacharacteristicfeatureofchildrenuptotheageof6.

Suchexternalchangesarerelatedtothefactthatthevolumeofsubcutaneousfattytissueinfive-year-oldchildrendecreases,andthedevelopmentofboneandmusclemassisbecomingmoreintense.Thegrowthrateofthelimbsofthebabyconsiderablyexceedsthegrowthrateofthetrunk,andthelengthofthebaby'sbodydoublesorincreasesslightly,thelengthoftheupperlimbsincreasestwoandahalftimes,andthelengthofthelowerlimbs-threetimesormore.Allthisleadstoachangeintherelationshipwitheachotherpartsofthebodyandmovingalittledownthecenterofgravity.Asaresult,achildcanmovemoreconfidentlyandquicklythanbefore.

Foraharmoniousdevelopment,achildof5yearsmustmovedailyforatleastfivehours,ashypokinesiaisoneofthemaincausesofchildhoodobesityandearlyatherosclerosisofbloodvessels./p>

Muscularsystemofchildrendevelopsunevenly:largemusclesofthearmsdevelopinthefirstplace,andsmall(intercostalmuscles,musclesofthehandsandsolesofthefeet)lagfarbehindintheirdevelopment.Ofcourse,lessdevelopedmusclesaremorelikelytogettiredofstress.Therefore,activitiesthatinvolvethefineworkofthefingersofthehandsshouldbeshort-lived.Planeprophylaxismeasuresarenecessarilycarriedout:

  • thecorrectfootwearisselected(fixingtheheel,withapadunderthearchofthefootandalowheel,madefromnaturalmaterials);
  • thechildisgiventheopportunitytowalkbarefootaroundtheapartment,cottage,innature;
  • ifthefeetaresoftandthereisahereditarypredispositiontoflat-footedness,specialexercisesareperformedtostrengthenit,andinthebathroomarubbermassagematwitharaised,hardsurfaceisplacedonthefloor.Gettinguponsuchamatafterrelaxingmusclesinwater,achildverywellmassagesthefootandcausescontractionofitsmuscles.

Thegrowthofthemusculoskeletalsystemofthebabydirectlyaffectstheactivityofhismovementsandphysicalskills.Bytheageofsix,allmovementsacquirerhythmandsmoothness,andthebabyitselfbecomesmoreagile.Thisexplainsthefactthatfive-six-year-oldsbegintobeacceptedintodancecircles.

Dancesforchildren

Theenduranceofthemusculatureofthebodyisstillverylow,sothechildcannotbeinonepositionforalongtime.Forthedevelopmentofthisquality,gameslike“Theseaworriesonce”or“Freeze”aregood,whenachild,accordingtotherulesofthegame,mustassumeacertainpostureandholdituntiltheleaderintervenes.

Thegeneralcontourofthespinebecomesthesameasinadults,butitsfixationisstillimperfect-theamountofcartilagetissueisstillinsufficient.Therefore,greatimportanceisattachedtotheformationofcorrectposture:

  • thechild’spositionatthedeskandcomputeriscontrolled;
  • hardfurnitureischosenforsleep(itcanevenbebedswithorthopedicmattresses);
  • thevisittotheswimmingpoolrecreationsectionbegins-ifthekidhasnotvisitedthepoolbefore.Swimmingallowsyoutostrengthenthespinalcolumnandbackmuscles.

Bytheageoffive,thebaby’sbrainapproachesinsizeandweighttheparametersoftheadultbrain.Butthemainnervousprocessesinpreschoolchildrenproceeddifferently:

  • thereisnobalance;
  • excitementprocessesprevail;
  • inhibitionofactivityisachievedwithdifficulty.

Thisexplainsthefactthatitisdifficultforachildtoconcentrateonsolvingasingletask.Butitismucheasiertoteachhimtoperformacertainactioncorrectlythantoretrainlater.

Thebaby’svisionchanges:

Thefullvisualacuityofthechildisreachedbythisage,soheisabsolutelyreadyforprolongedreading.

Bytheageoffive,healreadyseeslargeletterswell,andbytheageofsixhediscernssmallerones.

Thechild'scolorvisionisimproved,healreadydiscernscolorshades.

Theformationofjointvisioniscompletedwithtwoeyes,sothechildbeginstofullyperceivetheprethereisspaceinthespace.

Thevolumeofthelungscontinuestoincrease,andtherespiratoryorgansworkinparallel:

  • therespirationrategraduallydecreases;
  • thedepthofbreathingincreases,resultingintoamorecompletesaturationofthebody'stissueswithoxygen;
  • theresistanceoftherespiratorysystemtoinflammatoryprocessesandinfectiousdiseasesincreases.

Thechild'sheartmassandvolumeincrease,

Basicphysicalskills

Achildof5yearsmasteredthetemptationpossessionofyourbody.Andwhatskillscanheboasttothistime:

  • run200-300meterswithoutstoppingatafairlyfastpace;
  • runoverroughterrain;
  • coordinateyourmovements—quicklytouchtipoftheearornosewitheyesclosed;
  • deftlycatchtheballandthrowitforward2-3meters;
  • walkalonganarrowboardorlog;
  • jumpthroughastep,objectsandarope;
  • slightlyclimbtheropeattheexpenseofthestrengthofthearms;
  • tumbleforward.

Usually,kidswhostartattendthesportssection,developacertaingroupofphysicalskills,soplayingsportshelpstostrengthenthebodyandnervoussystemofthebaby.

Child5yearsold

Thenervoussystemandmentalfeatures

Bytheageoffivetosix,childrenareinterestedingenderissues.Girlseagerlyplaytheroleofmother,grandmother,daughter,displayingtheirideasaboutfamilylife.Theboysdemonstratetheirleadershippositionsandtherolesofthebreadwinnerandtheprotector.

Therefore,thekidisbeginningtolookateventsinhisfamilywithdifferenteyes; The beginnings of situation analysis appear.If the home environment is friendly, enough attention is paid to the child, it grows more socially adapted and adapted to the problems.

The interest of kids in creativity is increasing - partly due to the development of physical qualities that allow them to perform more complex work, partly the child’s accumulation of elementary life experience, which he reflects in his handicrafts.

Thus, a characteristic feature of the drawing of five-year-old children is a tendency to reflect in their picture not specific visual impressions, but not s the result of a personal representation over the world. Therefore, according to the drawings, psychologists determine the well-being of the peace of the baby.

Usually, by the age of five to six, the child sees a piece of paper as a world space. Therefore, while drawing, he displays his knowledge about him, builds his picture of the surroundings. As a rule, he is able to distinguish between drawing on the "earth" and "sky", in a certain order to distribute characters on it. The systematic pattern speaks about the sequence of judgments of the baby.

Often children perceive drawing as a continuous process, reflecting in it the dynamics of the actions taking place: here the tree is covered with leaves, the sun is shining.Flew the wind (the child draws the lines of the wind), brought clouds (the sun is painted over with dark paint), it started to rain (rain drops are drawn on the whole leaf). This is a normal phenomenon, indicating the interest of the child to the artistic display of reality, and not his carelessness and negligence. There is no need to require static results from the child - cute houses and flowers. He will reach everything himself.

Five to six years is the best age for learning and activity:

A child seeks partnership in games with peers, learns to communicate and abide by the rules of games and interpersonal interaction.

Actively develops the figurative thinking of the baby, which is inextricably linked with speech and serves as the basis for the further development of the child. Well help to develop his ideas about the space work with the plan and drawings.

Such features of the child’s psyche, such as originality and arbitrariness of imagination, are being formed.

There is unrestrained interest in experimental work and work with new materials for creativity.

The ability to play developing speech, mathematical, logic games is improved.

In five or six years, the child’s temperament is clearly visible, one can judge his hyperactivity.Therefore, when problems arise in the behavior of a child, the help of a child psychologist is effective.

The role of pre-school classes has increased from five years. However, they should not become the dominant link in the child's communication with parents and teachers. Only the development of the individuality of the child, his life skills and ideas, is the key to a successful learning process, since all the learned knowledge has one sad property - to disappear from memory for uselessness.


Date: 08.10.2018, 13:54 / Views: 91564

Related News


The designer received the task to strengthen the old house and created something incredible
Advantages of porcelain
Surface Decor in the Spot Painting technique
Wooden hemp watches
Installation closers